Such CNC machines are equipped with Point to Point and continuous track control (CPC). The manufacture of workpieces with such complex and multiple operations is carried out in one clamping.
a- Horizontal machining center
b- Vertical machining center
CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF CNC MACHINING CENTERS:
3 or even 4 surfaces of prismatic workpieces can be processed simultaneously in one connection.
Face milling, boring boring reaming and tapping, profiling, angle hole drilling, etc. transactions can be made.
The cutters to be used are placed in the magazine part of the machine and used in the necessary operations in the program. Magazines have a cutter capacity of 10-30-60-80 or more.
Robot arms and equipment are used in connecting and unwinding workpieces to the workbench. Thus, time losses in this area are eliminated.
D- CNC DRILLING MACHINES:
CNC drill benches are not much different from conventional types in terms of processing functions. They are designed as a small-capacity vertical machining center, not as a stand-alone CNC drill stand. The movements of the table are in the direction of X and Y axes, and the movement of the cutter is in the direction of the Z axis.
There are many possibilities with such machines. (The table head, to which the fixed cutter is connected, can move in coordinate axes. There may be more than one machine spindle and table.) They are especially useful for simple milling, drilling and hole enlargement.
PROCESS STEPS IN DRILLING OPERATIONS:
The cutting tool is sent to the X and Y coordinates of the target point to be drilled. When the target point is reached, the cutter quickly approaches the workpiece surface to a safe distance (Clearance Height). The drilling process of the workpiece is started. If the hole is deep, the cutter is pulled back a little, the chips are emptied and the drilling process is continued again. At the end of the drilling process, the cutter is quickly removed from the part. The cutter is sent to the specified coordinates for the next hole. Mirror Image and Repeat cycles are very commonly used in CNC drill benches. The X and Y coordinate values required for the mirror image are entered. In the repeat cycle, the number of repetitions and the X and Y coordinate definitions to which the operation will be applied are made. This shortens the program considerably. The values for different cutter sizes are entered into the relevant unit of the machine control unit as the cutter length compensation (Tool Length Compensation). With the ease of automatic cutter replacement (ATC), the production is accelerated in the use of a large number of cutters.
E- CNC GRINDING MACHINES
Cylindrical and plane grinding processes require high precision and surface quality. For this reason, it is very suitable for the basic philosophy of Numerical Control, especially in terms of technology. Unfortunately, the use of NC in this field has been in recent years. Manufacturing companies that have successfully solved some of their specific problems related to grinding have developed their own NC systems by integrating Numerical Control with their manufacturing.
Standard control designs used on lathes and milling machines are not useful in grinding machines. For this reason, different solutions are needed in the control systems of grinding machines from other types of machines. These are high sensitivity, sometimes up to 0.1 micron. A very wide range of pacing. Feed rates 0.02 mm/min. With 60 m/min. varies between Special grinding cycles for grinding operations (Canned Grinding Cycles) . Gradual advance increase, standby, oscillation, routine, stone sharpening, etc. are examples of these cycles. Automatic cutter compensation after grinding wheel grinding. Linear (Linear) and curvilinear (Circular) interpolation should be done without slowing down. Grinding the grinding wheel on any contour deviations. Easy data entry and corrections to the program. Since the amount of cutter used in grinding machines is not much, the compensation process is simpler.